QUEEN’S CRESCENT SCHOOL

Writing Policy

 Rationale

At Queen’s Crescent School we are passionate about giving the children the very best opportunities to develop their basic skills in reading, writing, speaking and listening. We understand how through writing and talking they are able to further their learning, strengthen their relationships and make better sense of the World around them.

We recognise that children arrive at school with broad and diverse language experiences (including children with English as a second language). Through a rich and creative curriculum we aim to provide our learners with the best opportunities to become fluent, confident and skilled communicators in both written and spoken English.

Writing- Aims and Objectives

The teachers at Queen’s Crescent hold high expectations of themselves and the children they teach. We strive for excellence in English and by adopting a consistent and creative approach to our teaching, we aim for our learners to fulfil their potential and develop a genuine love for writing.

Through our English curriculum we aim to:

 

  • Develop a genuine love of writing, promoting positive attitudes
  • Develop confidence and fluency when writing
  • Encourage the children to value their own writing and that of others
  • Equip our learners with a range of strategies which will support their development and ability to spell correctly
  • Promote the correct use of Standard Written and Spoken English
  • Encourage creativity and the use of more ambitious vocabulary in their writing
  • Enable children to write independently for a range of purposes and audiences
  • Enhance planning, drafting, editing and redrafting skills
  • Appreciate the writing of others, including their peers and published authors and writers
  • Help children recognise that writing is a powerful communication tool
  • Continue to demonstrate high standards of written English across the curriculum and demonstrate a commitment to the development of Basic Skills.
  • Provide equal opportunities for all pupils to achieve success when writing

Approaches to Teaching and learning

Our teachers are incredibly skilled and demonstrate their own love of writing through high quality modelling and outstanding teaching of English. To maintain excellent standards (in teaching and learning) the teachers and Teaching Assistants are kept well informed and up-to date with current Curriculum requirements and teaching pedagogy. We follow a creative and stimulating writing curriculum which makes links with EYFS curriculum (Appendix 1 includes the Early Learning Goals for the FS2 ) and the 2014 National Curriculum.  (Appendix 2 outlines National Curriculum programmes of study for writing). At all times our teachers strive to make writing meaningful and with a purpose.  We enhance writing opportunities by providing stimulating starting points, real life experiences and out of school excursions. We make links to topics and other subject areas as much as possible in order to allow children to develop and value their writing across the Curriculum. We model and share our own writing in order to support children with their learning.

Strategies for Writing

Through purposeful activities we aim for the children to become confident and critical writers of different genres. They will be taught the conventions of non-fiction writing as well as being helped to develop their creative skills in poetry and story writing.  Through regular and exciting starting points they will build up stamina, confidence and enthusiasm for writing.

Writing activities will be appropriately matched to individual abilities in the classroom with realistic targets identified and planned for. Throughout the school the children will be encouraged to develop as critical writers, in order to identify particular strengths in their own writing and that of others, whilst becoming aware of how it may be improved. All writing should be the child’s best writing.

The children will be encouraged to develop and use a range of writing skills, including ICT skills, drafting, application of effective spelling strategies, editing and re-drafting skills. They will be encouraged to present final, neat copies of their work which they have edited and up levelled.  We will provide the opportunity for children to apply their written skills to all areas of the curriculum, and expect children to write at a sustained high level, matched to their potential and current writing level.

 Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar

Our aim is to encourage our learners to fully understand the wonderful rich nature of our English language and begin to use it to its full effect through writing and speaking. We hope that through games, interactive activities and high quality teaching and learning, the children will command an exciting vocabulary, a vivid imagination and appropriate skills to enhance their writing, whatever the genre.

Part of the daily teaching of writing will focus on the development of Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling skills as outlined in The 2014 National Curriculum and in The Letters and Sounds progression. These basic writing skills are developed on a regular basis, through a wide range of games and short written activities. In Years 2 and 6 the children will undertake Grammar, Spelling and Punctuation assessments. However, it is an expectation that from FS2, all children are taught specific Grammar terminology and application so that they develop competence and confidence from an early age.

 Indeed, from FS2 onwards, an emphasis has been placed on encouraging the children to build up an understanding of sentence structure, the accurate use of punctuation, the application of spelling rules and the identification of different word classes.  Every classroom has a Spagpuss display to support the appropriate teaching and learning of Grammar. Appendix 1 outlines The 2014 Statutory Curriculum for Grammar.

Handwriting and Spelling

Throughout all writing opportunities high quality handwriting and effective use of spelling strategies are promoted. See additional Handwriting and Spelling policies for further guidance.

Speaking and Listening

At Queens’ Crescent School we firmly believe that the bedrock to becoming a successful writer is in being able to talk about your thoughts and ideas in a clear and confident manner, before committing them to paper. Through the development of dialogic talk we encourage children to listen to and respond thoughtfully to contributions of others, as well as becoming clear and fluent speakers themselves. Questioning is high on our agenda and we encourage our learners to question and challenge in order to deepen their understanding of the World. We instil positive speaking and listening behaviours and expect our children and adults to respond thoughtfully and respectfully to others, whatever their role in school.

We always encourage the children to talk through their ideas in full and extended sentences, using correct Standard English.

From Foundation Stage the importance of storytelling, songs and rhymes is introduced and this continues throughout the school. We are confident that good Oracy and storytelling skills will enhance the children’s creative writing.

The 2014 NC for Speaking and Listening requires that:

Pupils should be taught to:

  • listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers
  • ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
  • use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary
  • articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions
  • give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings
  • maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments
  • use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas
  • speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English
  • participate in discussions, presentations, performances, role play, improvisations and debates
  • gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s)
  • consider and evaluate different viewpoints, attending to and building on the contributions of others

select and use appropriate registers for effective communication.

 

At Queen’s Crescent school we will also provide children with the opportunity to:

 

  • Explore language and word play, in order to develop a love for exciting, amusing and imaginative words
  • Describe their observations and experiences to others
  • Provide opportunity for the telling and innovation of stories
  • Develop questioning skills and dialogic talk
  • Provide role play and drama opportunities to enliven and enrich children’s understanding of character and relationships.
  • Work collaboratively with talk partners, talk triangles and in small or larger groups
  • Give presentations in various groups to various audiences
  • Complete Talk Homework to promote the importance of Oracy at home.
  • Allow Debates within classrooms relating to topical issues or a current class focus.
  • To provide opportunities through The School Council to debate both in and out of school.
  • Value their own thoughts and opinions and recognise that they have a voice in our school community.
  • Share their understanding and talk about their experiences to others.

 

Through delivery of the 2014 National Curriculum the children will be exposed to specific vocabularies, including Maths, Science, Geography and History, which they will use in both spoken and written work. The children will opportunities in their discussions to use technical language correctly in order to demonstrate their understanding of these different subject areas.

Drama

Drama makes a unique and important contribution to our curriculum as it provides us with a means to widen the children’s experiences and further their understanding of themselves and their World.  We believe that role play has a significant impact on writing attainment and we encourage it in all Year groups.

In FS2 and Key Stage1 classrooms role play areas encourage the children to explore their imagination and develop creativity. Our outdoor stage provides opportunities for the children to explore and understand situations which challenge social attitudes.  We recognise Drama as a valuable tool for developing creativity, empathy, talking and writing and as a way to bring alive other areas of the curriculum.

The children will have opportunity to perform in a range of activities and situations during their time at Queen’s Crescent and for a range of audiences.

Opportunities will include:

 

  • Role Play
  • Hot seating
  • Paired and small group work
  • Class assemblies,
  • Christmas performances
  • Workshops delivered by Drama specialists and Secondary School
  • Larger productions to parents and visitors
  • Opportunities to appreciate Drama productions performed by others, including visiting companies.

We are proud of the high quality performances that the children are involved in each year. In Key Stage 1 and Foundation Stage the children put on Christmas performances, whilst in Key Stage 2 each Phase put on high quality productions linked to their topics. Through such performances we recognise how the children develop in confidence, creativity and self esteem. We truly value the opportunities to allow individuals to shine.

Resources

To enable all children to become confident and skilled communicators classrooms will be well equipped to support the different activities and learning styles. Resources may include:

  • Whiteboard and pens, ICT, spelling games. Magnetic letters, word banks (including cross curricular words as well as high frequency words), word cards, thesaurus, dictionaries, picture dictionaries, wall charts , spell it check it books, Spagpuss board, Support For Spelling Guidelines. Letters and Sounds framework, The 2014 National Curriculum and Spellodrome
  • Visual writing prompts
  • A rich source of cross curricular texts from different genres.
  • A variety of high quality writing displayed throughout the school.
  • The children will also have opportunity to use the outdoor learning environment including the school grounds or further afield, in order to inspire their learning

Our greatest resource, however, is our teaching team. Qualified teachers and experienced TAs lead a range of intervention groups to accelerate the progress of vulnerable learners and those disadvantaged learners. They offer challenge to more able children and offer support to those who may need to overcome barriers to their learning.

Home/ School links

We recognise the importance of home school links.

Weekly homework focusing on a range of word level, sentence level and text level work is sent home to support class learning. An emphasis has also been placed on Talk homework to promote Oracy skills.  From Year1 all children have access to Spelling and Grammar Bug to support their learning at home. Workshops are held throughout the year to inform parents about Grammar, Spelling and other aspects of writing, which may support them whilst working with their child at home.

Additional information for parents is available on the school website.

SEND/EAL

Some children will continue to need additional support beyond differentiated classroom activities.

TAs may lead additional multi-sensory writing activities involving small groups or with individuals. Intervention programmes, such as Toe by Toe, Nessie, additional Letters and Sounds, Read, Write Spell programme may also be put in place to support spelling. Talk Boost is also used to help groups of Key Stage 1 make further progress with speaking and listening.

Class teachers will liaise with the SENCO when considering the specific needs of some children. The SENCO will perform any additional assessments in order to identify specific weaknesses. Where necessary, Individual SMART targets relating to spelling, speaking and listening, punctuation and language use in order to help these children progress further. When children have English as an additional language support will be given from EMAS and the SENCO. The Speech and Language team may also offer support to individuals with specific communication needs.

Equal Opportunities

All children will have an equal opportunity to work within this policy area. Account will be taken of specific needs, vulnerable or disadvantaged groups of learners and where appropriate, support will be accessed.

Curriculum Links

This policy is supported by the range of whole school policies, including assessment, SEN, Handwriting, Spelling and presentation policies.

Assessment

Assessments are carried out through teacher set tasks, focused observations, questioning of the children, review of the children’s work and subject leader interviews with a sample of children from FS2 to Year 6.Regular monitoring and work scrutiny will take place by teachers and SMT and tracking documents are regularly updated and used to inform planning. In FS2 the children are assessed against the Development Matters document and EYFS curriculum on entry and throughout the year. In Key stage 1 and Key Stage 2 ongoing independent writing will be assessed against  the National Curriulum requirements. This assessment will inform both teachers and children of progress made and help develop future targets. Teachers will feed back to the children through regular written or verbal comments and ongoing targets will be given to ensure progress maintained.  Opportunities for the children to uplevel and respond to marking will be given through the week. In Key Stage 2 this may be seen through the use of a polishing pen. In Year 2 and Year 6 the children will take part in End of Key Stage assessments. The results of which will be published and shared with parents. Parents will also be updated on pupil progress  at parents’ evenings and through the annual reports.

Roles and responsibilities

This policy has been developed through consultation with staff, subject leaders, head teacher and governing body. The Head teacher, Senior Management team and subject leaders will monitor and evaluate the work achieved. The leaders will identify areas for development, resource needs and moderate standards across the school.

Monitoring and Evaluation

The monitoring and evaluation of the achievements made in this area of the curriculum is carried out through the guidelines on monitoring and evaluation. These set out how the Head teacher, SLT, subject leader use a range of strategies to assess the qualities of achievements. The class teachers, however, have a key role in monitoring and evaluating the teaching and learning taking place in their class.

The subject leaders will regularly review the Writing action plan and will work with the SMT to evaluate any relevant areas of the School development plan when appropriate. The leaders will also liaise with the link Governor and will attend meetings to keep the Governing Body informed and updated.

The periodic reports of SIA and Ofsted will give independent views on the standards achieved within this subject area.

 

Appendix 1

 

ELG for Writing, Listening and Attention, Understanding and Listening

Writing

Children use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which match their spoken sounds. They also write some irregular common words. They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others. Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible.

Listening and attention

Children listen attentively in a range of situations. They listen to stories, accurately anticipating key events and respond to what they hear with relevant comments, questions or actions. They give their attention to what others say and respond appropriately, while engaged in another activity

Understanding

Children follow instructions involving several ideas or actions. They answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions about their experiences and in response to stories or events.

Speaking

Children express themselves effectively, showing awareness of listeners’ needs. They use past, present and future forms accurately when talking about events that have happened or are to happen in the future.

They develop their own narratives and explanations by connecting ideas or events.

Appendix 2  2014 National Curriculum Statutory Requirements

Year 1

 

Writing – Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

Writing - Composition

Pupils should be taught to:

§ leaving spaces between words

§ joining words and joining clauses using and

§ beginning to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark

§ using a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun ‘I’

§ learning the grammar for year 1 in English Appendix 2

§ use the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 in discussing their writing.

Pupils should be taught to:

§ write sentences by:

§ saying out loud what they are going to write about

§ composing a sentence orally before writing it

§ sequencing sentences to form short narratives

§ re-reading what they have written to check that it makes sense

§ discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils

§ read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher.

Word

Regular plural noun suffixess or –es [for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes], including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of the noun

Suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (e.g. helping, helped, helper)

How the prefix un– changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives [negation, for example, unkind, or undoing: untie the boat]

Sentence

How words can combine to make sentences

Joining words and joining clauses using and

Text

Sequencing sentences to form short narratives

Punctuation

Separation of words with spaces

Introduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

Capital letters for names and for the personal pronoun I

Terminology for pupils

letter, capital letter

word, singular, plural

sentence

punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark

 

Year 2

 

Writing – Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

Writing - Composition

Pupils should be :

§ learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly (see English Appendix 2), including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms and the possessive (singular)

§ learn how to use:

§ sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command

§ expanded noun phrases to describe and specify [for example, the blue butterfly]

§ the present and past tenses correctly and consistently including the progressive form

§ subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but)

§ the grammar for year 2 in English Appendix 2

§ some features of written Standard English

§ use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 in discussing their writing.

Pupils should be taught to:

§ develop positive attitudes towards and stamina for writing by:

§ writing narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional)

§ writing about real events

§ writing poetry

§ writing for different purposes

§ consider what they are going to write before beginning by:

§ planning or saying out loud what they are going to write about

§ writing down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary

§ encapsulating what they want to say, sentence by sentence

§ make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing by:

§ evaluating their writing with the teacher and other pupils

§ re-reading to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form

§ proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation [for example, ends of sentences punctuated correctly]

§ read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear.

Word

Formation of nouns using suffixes such as –ness, –er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman]

Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as –ful, –less

(A fuller list of suffixes can be found on page 3 in the year 2 spelling section in English Appendix 1)

Use of the suffixes –er, –est in adjectives and the use of –ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs

Sentence

Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but)

Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon]

How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command

Text

Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing

Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he was shouting]

Punctuation

Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences

Commas to separate items in a list

Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl’s name]

Terminology for pupils

noun, noun phrase

statement, question, exclamation, command

compound, suffix

adjective, adverb, verb

tense (past, present)

apostrophe, comma

 

Year 3 and 4

 

Writing – Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

Writing - Composition

Pupils should be

§ extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of conjunctions, including when, if, because, although

§ using the present perfect form of verbs in contrast to the past tense

§ choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion and to avoid repetition

§ using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause

§ using fronted adverbials

§ learning the grammar for years 3 and 4 in English Appendix 2

§ indicate grammatical and other features by:

§ using commas after fronted adverbials

§ indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with plural nouns

§ using and punctuating direct speech

§ use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately when discussing their writing and reading.

Pupils should be taught to:

§ plan their writing by:

§ discussing writing similar to that which they are planning to write in order to understand and learn from its structure, vocabulary and grammar

§ discussing and recording ideas

§ draft and write by:

§ composing and rehearsing sentences orally (including dialogue), progressively building a varied and rich vocabulary and an increasing range of sentence structures

§ organising paragraphs around a theme

§ in narratives, creating settings, characters and plot

§ in non-narrative material, using simple organisational devices [for example, headings and sub-headings]

§ evaluate and edit by:

§ assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing and suggesting improvements

§ proposing changes to grammar and vocabulary to improve consistency, including the accurate use of pronouns in sentences

§ proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

§ read aloud their own writing, to a group or the whole class, using appropriate intonation and controlling the tone and volume so that the meaning is clear.

Year 3 Grammar

Word

Formation of nouns using a range of prefixes [for example super–, anti–, auto–]

Use of the forms a or an according to whether the next word begins with a consonant or a vowel [for example, a rock, an open box]

Word families based on common words, showing how words are related in form and meaning [for example, solve, solution, solver, dissolve, insoluble]

Sentence

Expressing time, place and cause using conjunctions [for example, when, before, after, while, so, because], adverbs [for example, then, next, soon, therefore], or prepositions [for example, before, after, during, in, because of]

Text

Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group related material

Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation

Use of the present perfect form of verbs instead of the simple past [for example, He has gone out to play contrasted with He went out to play]

Punctuation

Introduction to inverted commas to punctuate direct speech

Terminology for pupils

preposition conjunction

word family, prefix

clause, subordinate clause

direct speech

consonant, consonant letter vowel, vowel letter

inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’)

Year 4 Grammar

Word

The grammatical difference between plural and possessive –s

Standard English forms for verb inflections instead of local spoken forms [for example, we were instead of we was, or I did instead of I done]

Sentence

Noun phrases expanded by the addition of modifying adjectives, nouns and preposition phrases (e.g. the teacher expanded to: the strict maths teacher with curly hair)

Fronted adverbials [for example, Later that day, I heard the bad news.]

Text

Use of paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme

Appropriate choice of pronoun or noun within and across sentences to aid cohesion and avoid repetition

Punctuation

Use of inverted commas and other punctuation to indicate direct speech [for example, a comma after the reporting clause; end punctuation within inverted commas: The conductor shouted, “Sit down!”]

Apostrophes to mark plural possession [for example, the girl’s name, the girls’ names]

Use of commas after fronted adverbials

Terminology for pupils

determiner

pronoun, possessive pronoun

adverbial

 

 

Year 5 and 6

 

Writing – Vocabulary, Grammar and Punctuation

Writing - Composition

Pupils should be :

§ recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms

§ using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence

§ using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause

§ using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely

§ using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility

§ using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (i.e. omitted) relative pronoun

§ learning the grammar for years 5 and 6 in English Appendix 2

§ indicate grammatical and other features by:

§ using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing

§ using hyphens to avoid ambiguity

§ using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

§ using semi-colons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses

§ using a colon to introduce a list

§ punctuating bullet points consistently

§ use and understand the grammatical terminology in English Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately in discussing their writing and reading.

Pupils should be taught to:

§  plan their writing by:

§  identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own

§  noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary

§  in writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed

§  draft and write by:

§  selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning

§  in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action

§  précising longer passages

§  using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs

§  using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, bullet points, underlining]

§  evaluate and edit by:

§  assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing

§  proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning

§  ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing

§  ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register

§  proof-read for spelling and punctuation errors

§ perform their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear.

Year 5 Grammar

 

Word

Converting nouns or adjectives into verbs using suffixes [for example, –ate; –ise; –ify]

Verb prefixes [for example, dis–, de–, mis–, over– and re–]

Sentence

Relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that, or an omitted relative pronoun

Indicating degrees of possibility using adverbs [for example, perhaps, surely] or modal verbs [for example, might, should, will, must]

Text

Devices to build cohesion within a paragraph [for example, then, after that, this, firstly]

Linking ideas across paragraphs using adverbials of time [for example, later], place [for example, nearby] and number [for example, secondly] or tense choices [for example, he had seen her before]

Punctuation

Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis

Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity

Terminology for pupils

modal verb, relative pronoun

relative clause

parenthesis, bracket, dash

cohesion, ambiguity

Year 6 Grammar

 

Word

The difference between vocabulary typical of informal speech and vocabulary appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, find out – discover; ask for – request; go in – enter]

How words are related by meaning as synonyms and antonyms [for example, big, large, little].

Sentence

Use of the passive to affect the presentation of information in a sentence [for example, I broke the window in the greenhouse versus The window in the greenhouse was broken (by me)].

The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing [for example, the use of question tags: He’s your friend, isn’t he?, or the use of subjunctive forms such as If I were or Were they to come in some very formal writing and speech]

Text

Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of cohesive devices: repetition of a word or phrase, grammatical connections [for example, the use of adverbials such as on the other hand, in contrast, or as a consequence], and ellipsis

Layout devices [for example, headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text]

Punctuation

Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to mark the boundary between independent clauses [for example, It’s raining; I’m fed up]

Use of the colon to introduce a list and use of semi-colons within lists

Punctuation of bullet points to list information

How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity [for example, man eating shark versus man-eating shark, or recover versus re-cover]

Terminology for pupils

subject, object

active, passive

synonym, antonym

ellipsis, hyphen, colon, semi-colon, bullet points